ancient Egyptian gods “M”
Maat: Maat was the concept of a structured world that brought order and equilibrium, ethical values and justice, culture and creativity. This goddess was the personification of cosmic harmony and equilibrium. Maat was the opposite to everything that was disordered, chaotic, destructive, and unjust. All Pharoahs and kings had to bring order to their kingdom and world about them and therefore it was important “Ma’at” was in place. This goddess personified all that brought order and was regarded as the daughter or companion of the sun-god. She was shown in human form with an ostrich feather on her head and sometimes she was shown with the wings of a divine being. Not until the New Kingdom did she really begin to have a cult on her own. Then she became part of the set of gods that were worshiped at Karnak and Memphis. She held a mortuary role that evolved over time.
Meretseger, Meresger: This goddess was seen as a nurturing god along with Renentutet. She was depicted as the snake-headed or serpent-shaped goddess of the western mountains of Thebes. She is also known as the “Lady of Heaven” and the “Peak of the West” in Egyptian religious texts. She was also known as the protector of the dead and one who chastised the evildoer and also was sometimes referred to as the “Lover of silence.” She was quite popular throughout various times in ancient Egyptian history although known as one of the lesser gods.
Min: This god was one of the first to have his name preserved as a deity in Egyptian records. He is known to be a god of fertility, a god of travel in the desert, and a god of harvests. By the fourth century BC, huge statues were already being erected in Coptus on his behalf. He is depicted in human form with an erect phallus, wearing a plumed crown with a streamer. Sometimes he is also shown as a mummy with the plumed hat and carrying a flail. Eventually he was incorporated in the Amun cult and was also worshiped in some areas as Min-Horus. He was honored with festivals and disorderly merriment. Along with Kamutef (bull of his mother), he is regarded as a creator god.
Mnevis: He is portrayed as a black bull with a solar disk between his horns and was considered one of the sacred bulls in ancient Egypt. He was the sun bull of Heliopolis. The large genitals were a sign of the great procreative power that he possessed. He is known to have strong links to Re and Atum.
Montu, Mont: This god is depicted with a head of a falcon, a plumed crown, and the solar disk and two uraeus (rearing cobra) serpents over his forehead. He was also considered a sun god. He appears in the Old Kingdom records and was worshiped at Erment (Hermonthis) which is present day Armant At first he is shown as a royal god, and it appears that his major cult followers were centered at Hermonthis, Tod, Medamud, and Thebes. He was also the god of war and fought against the enemies of the gods. He stood at the kings’ side during battles. At time progressed, in the Middle Kingdom, another cult appeared depicting him as a bull. This was most likely done to further depict and enhance his warlike qualities.
Mut: This goddess is depicted in human form wearing a vulture headdress and the Double Crown. Her worship was directly dependent on the worship of Amun. Her cult took place from the New Kingdom onward. She, Amun, and their son Khonsu formed the Theban divine triad. Her maternal role is emphasized by the written vulture hieroglyph which means “mother.” Both Amun and Mut were regarded as the king’s parents from the Eighteenth Dynasty onward. At Karnak, she developed her own cult. Eventually, she was honored with a temple and a lake at Thebes. She was also known as the “Lady of Asheru.” She also had close associations with goddesses that were of the vulture and lion nature such as Nekhbet, Uto, Sakhmet, and Bastet. In addition, part of the mythology story indicates that she took on the role as a sky goddess and turned into the form of a cow when Amun emerged at Heliopolis.